Exploring the Fringe-Belt Phenomenon in a Multi-Nuclear City: The Case of Istanbul

Ayşe Sema Kubat

Abstract


This paper examines historic land use changes to the fringe-belt zones of Istanbul, and in particular looks at the transformation of areas such as these into CBDs due to the effects of urban growth development cycles. The study is based on detailed research into the selected case study areas regarding changes in their land-uses within the overall urban development pattern of Istanbul. Once in the periphery, many of these areas now reflect CBD characteristics as a result of their development cycles. Urban fringe-belts are the urban peripheries of earlier periods that have become enveloped by the city through urban growth, and over time these areas adjust to the ever changing dynamics of urban land-use. In contrast to the dense urban texture of previously developed regions of the city, fringe-belts have a more loose texture and frequently retain the potential for the creation of public spaces. These include the open green areas, institutional areas, and industrial heritage sites that have connections with urban identity, and which are therefore essential for urban memory. Fringe-belts are both heritage areas and ecological corridors that create buffer zones to protect the natural landscape from urban sprawl. However, due to the requirements of rapid population growth, they are often seen as potential development areas and those that remain become alienated. Understanding the formation and modification dynamics of fringe-belts is important for both the appreciation and management of cities, and also for the determination of urban areas’ future development.

Keywords


Fringe Belt, Urban Growth, CBD, Urban Morphology, İstanbul

Full Text:

PDF

References


Barke, M. (1982). Beyond the urban growth map: suggestions for more analytical work in urban morphology. Teaching Geography, 7, 111-15.

Barke, M. (1990). Morphogenesis, fringe belts and urban size: an exploratory essay, in Slater. T. R. (ed.) The built form of Western cities, Leicester University Press, 279-97.

Conzen, M.R.G. (1960). Alnwick, Northumberland: a study in town-plan analysis. The Institute Of British Geographers, 27.

Conzen, M.R. G. (1962). The plan analysis of an English city centre, in Norborg, K. (ed.) Proceedings of the International Geographical Union Symposium in Urban Geography, Lund 1960 (Gleerup, Lund).

Conzen, M.P. (2009). How cities internalize their former urban fringes: a cross cultural comparison. Urban Morphology, 13, 29-54.

Ducom, E. (2005). Fringe belts in French cities: a comparative study of Rennes, Nantes and Tours, in Barke, M. (ed.) Approaches in urban morphology (Division of Geography, University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne), 34-43.

Gu, K. (2010). Exploring the fringe belt concept in Auckland: an urban morphological idea and planning practice. New Zealand Geographer, 66, 44-60.

Hazar, D., Kubat, A.S. (2012). Fringe belts in the process of urban planning and design: comparative analyses of Istanbul and Barcelona, Journal of A/Z, Istanbul Technical University, 12/1, 53-65.

Hazar, D. & Kubat, A.S. (2015). The fringe belt development process of Istanbul. 23rd International Seminar on Urban Form (ISUF) 2015, Conference proceedings, 423-436, Nanjing, China.

Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IBB) (2005), Tarihi Yarımada koruma amaçlı nazım imar planı raporu, Department of Reconstruction and Urbanism, Directorate of City Planning.

Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IBB) (2009), 1/100.000 ölçekli Istanbul çevre düzeni planı raporu, Department of Reconstruction and Urbanism, Directorate of City Planning.

Karaulan, D. & Kubat, A.S. (2018). Analyzing Fringe belt phenomenon in the historico-geographical structure of Milan, Italy. ICONARP-International Journal of Architecture & Planning, 6, Issue 2, 304-332.

Kuban, D. (1996). İstanbul Bir Kent Tarihi, Bizantion, Konstantinopolis, İstanbul. Türkiye Ekonomik ve Toplumsal Tarih Vakfı, İstanbul.

Kubat, A. S, (1999) “Morphological History of Istanbul”, Urban Morphology, 3 (1), 28-41.

Kubat, A.S. & Gümru, B. & Kürkçüoğlu, E. & Sungur, C. (2013). Landwalls of Istanbul: morphological approach. Presented in the Summer School: Theodosian Land Walls and Urban Agriculture, Kadir Has University. (unpublished)

Kubat, A.S. & Hazar, D. (2018). İstanbul’un Çeper Kuşak Gelişim Süreci. in Kubat et al (eds) Proceeding Local ISUF Congress in Urban Morphology (II TNUM), Istanbul Technical University, 693-711.

Kubat A.S. (2018). Exploring the fringe belt phenomenon in the case of Istanbul. CYNUM 2018, Cyprus Network of Urban Morphology, Plenary section (invited speech, unpublished).

Louis, H. (1936). “Die geographische Gliederung von Gross- Berlin”, in Louis, H. and Panzer, W. (eds) Länderkundliche Forschung: Festschrift zur Vollendung des sechzigsten Lebensjahres Norbert Krebs 146-71, Engelhorn, Stuttgart.

Pereira, J.A. & Meneguetti K.S. (2011). Urban fringe belts in planned new towns: the case of Maringa, Brazil. In published paper presented to the 18th ISUF Congress, Montreal, Canada.

Murphy, R.E. (1966). The American city, and urban geography, Mac Grew Hill Company, 292.

Ünlü T. (2013) Thinking about fringe belts: a Mediterranean perspective. Urban Morphology, 17(1):5-20.

Ünlü T., Baş Y. (2016) Multi-nuclear growth patterns in a rapidly changing Turkish city: a fringe belt perspective, Urban Morphology 20(2):107-121.

Ünlü T., Baş Y. (2019) The Urban growth and development periods of Turkish cities: a fringe belt perspective, in eds: Ö.B. Özdemir et al, Urban and Regional Planning in Turkey, The Urban Book series, Springer.

Whitehand, J.W.R. (1967). Fringe belts: a neglected aspect of urban geography. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 41, 223-33.

Whitehand, J.W.R. (1972). Building cycles and the spatial pattern of urban growth. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 56, 39-55.

Whitehand, J.W.R. (1987). The changing face of cities: a study of development cycles and urban form. Institute of British Geographers Special Publication, 21 (Blackwell, Oxford).

Whitehand, J.W.R. (1988-2007). Urban fringe belts: development of an idea. Planning Perspectives, 3, 47-58.

Whitehand, J.W.R. & Morton, N.J. (2003). Fringe belts and the recycling of urban land: an academic concept and planning practice, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 30, 819-39.

Whitehand, J.W.R. & Morton, N.J. (2004). Urban morphology and planning: the case of fringe belts. Cities, 21, 275-89.

Whitehand, J.W.R. & Morton, N.J. (2006). The fringe belt phenomenon and socioeconomic change, Urban Studies, 43, 2047-66.

-1764-1838-1860-1909-1970 City Maps, Courtesy of The Harvard Map Collection, Harvard College Library

th City Map, German Kartenwerkstatt Map: (https://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dosya:Constantinople_map_German.png)

-1882 Stolpe Map: Stolpe, C. Plan de Constantinople, avec ses faubourgs, le port et une partie du Bosphore. (https://gallica.bnf.fr/)

Goad Maps: Goad, C.E. Plan d’assurance de Constantinople (https://archnet.org/collections/1569/details)

Gedik Pasha Map: Na, S. H. (1922). Map of Constantinople. Harvard Map Collection, Harvard College Library.

-1944 Pervititch Maps: Istanbul in the insurance maps of Jacques Pervititch, İstanbul, 2000.

-1914 German Blues Map: German Blues, 1: 1913-1914 Before World War I. Maps of İstanbul / Source: Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Directorate of Libraries and Museums.

Land Utilization Maps of Golden Horn: G.Tezcan, S. Durgunoğlu, T. Ersen G. Çubuk, M. Tuğcu, N. Anadol, K. Karabey, H.(1978). Haliç ve Çevresi Düzenleme Çalışması, Mimarlık 78/4, 28-41.

Land Utilization Map of Golden Horn: Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality

-1966-1970-1982-2006-2011-2013-2014-2015-2017 Aerial Maps: (https://sehirharitasi.ibb.gov.tr )




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15320/ICONARP.2019.83

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 Iconarp International Journal of Architecture and Planning

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

                                                                                    
                                                                                     INDEXES & DATABASES:
                                                                                                      
 
                         
                      
                       
 
 

                                                
                            ICONARP International Journal of Architecture and Planning is an OAJ supported by Selcuk University, ©2019,