CONSERVING MODERN ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE: REVIEW ON FIRST NUMUNE HOSPITALS OF TURKEY

Mehmet Şener, Emre Kishali

Abstract


Purpose

The new political approaches followed after the establishment of republic transformed the basic characteristics of many different dynamics in Turkey ranging from education and industry to art and architecture. The arrangements related to health services hold an important place among these fields and the great transformations seen in healthcare services necessitated the construction of hospital buildings with contemporary architectural qualities. In this framework, new hospital buildings known as “Numune” (Sample) Hospitals were established in Ankara, Diyarbakır, Erzurum and Sivas cities in 1924 to be good examples for further hospital buildings. In this context, the historical evolutions, architectural characteristics and current situations of these Numune hospitals are examined in this study together with an analysis of all the changes and interventions they were exposed to from past to present. This study aims to clarify the historical importance of Numune hospitals in question, address the changes they have undergone to date, criticize the interventions in the context of architectural history and conservation disciplines, and put forward various suggestions related to such disciplines. The search of the ways to provide the interrelationship of these buildings with the rapidly evolving current world by referring to the contemporary methods of different disciplines, constitutes one other basic aim of this study. The applications of the public authority of health services; namely the -Ministry of Health- and the other efficient dynamics related with the conservation of these buildings are also critically evaluated with respect to their roles on the sustaining of the architectural and historial values of these buildings.

Design/Methodology/Approach

The problems in preserving the original characteristics and showing respect to the historical values of these buildings are discussed by using the instruments and concepts of architectural history and conservation disciplines. Besides, some strategies are proposed for the preservation of these buildings with an awareness of the current conditions of health services in Turkey, and the possibility of the conflict between today’s conservation practices and health facility standards.

Findings

Taking into account contemporary approaches and the advanced conservation techniques being employed today, this study indicates that it is possible to make use of these structures by transforming their functions and maintaining their authentic values through proper applications. It is also expressed that a well-defined framework regarding that which structures are to be conserved according to which criteria could not be created, and that the decision-making mechanism focused solely on the conservation of the oldest structures.

Practical Implications

Some refunctioning and remediation strategies are presented for conserving the historical values of these Numune hospitals, while also improving their conditions as far as possible.

Social Implications

The concepts of heritage and value should be defined in a broader contextual framework and conservation principles should be revised according to these definitions.

Originality/Value

Considering these buildings serve as cultural bridges extending from the Ottoman era to the present and have important places in the historical development of healthcare facility architecture in Turkey, they hold symbolic values within the context of Turkish architectural history and heritage.


Keywords


Health facility architecture, modern architectural heritage, numune hospitals, conservation

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15320/ICONARP.2020.106

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