Cities Hosting Holy Shrines: the Impact of Pilgrimage on Urban Form

Hossein Maroufi, Elisabetta Rosina

Abstract


This paper explores pilgrimage in the context of historic holy cities which contain at least one religious complex through which the ritual of pilgrimage takes place. One controversial tension in urban development process of holy cities is the tension between urban growth, on the one hand, and adapting city structure to the needs of pilgrims on the other hand. This paper investigates this issue by referring to experiences of two major holy cities in of Mecca and Mashhad. Both cities are spiritual centers which host millions of pilgrims throughout year. The aim of this paper is to analyze the process of city center transformation in both cities and monitor different policies and interventions that shaped their morphologies up to now. Through historical analysis of urban form, flow of pilgrims has affected the morphology of both cities in similar ways. Accordingly policies and interventions by local officials have shaped the urban center in three similar ways: enlargement and expansion of shrine, vehicular access to shrine, and real-estate speculation. İn the absence of protective and preventive codes and policies both Mecca and Mashhad have lost their historical urban fabric and their cultural patrimonies. Their traditional urban scape and prominence of shrine has been substituted by high rise mega projects. İn a similar way their local crafts and small-scale retails have been replaced by global retail chain.


Keywords


Pilgrimage, holy city, urban morphology, Mecca, Mashhad

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bianca, S. (2000). Urban Form in the Arab World—Past and Present. London: Thames & Hudson.

Hourani, A. H. and Stern S.M. (1970). The Islamic City. Oxford.

Hussein, M. (2013). “From Courtyard to Monument: Effect of Changing Social Values on Spatial Configuration of “the Cities of the Holy Shrines” in Iraq”. In Y. O. Kim, H. T. Park, & K. W. Seo (Eds.), Ninth International Space Syntax Symposium. Seoul: Sejong University.

Kheirabadi, M. (1991). Iranian Cities: Formation and Development. Texas: University of Texas Press.

Peters, F.E. (1986). Jerusalem and Mecca: The Typology of the Holy City in the Near East. New York: New York University Press.

Rezvani, A. (2005), In Search of Urban Identity Mashhad, Iran’s Building and City Planning Department: Mashhad.

Riggs, R. (??), Shi‘i Shrine Cities. Islamic Studies. DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195390155-0212

Sabila, R. (2015). “Sites of Worship: From Makkah to Karbala; Reconciling Pilgrimage, Speculation and Infrastructure”, in Sabila, R. (ed). Urban Design in the Arab World: Reconceptualizing Boundaries. Pp. 177-197, Routledge.

Toulan, N. A. (1993). “Planning and Development in Mecca”, in Amirahmadi, H. & Elshakhs, S. S. Urban development in the Muslim world. New Brunswick, N.J: Center for Urban Policy Research.

Woodward, S. C. (2004). “Faith and tourism: planning tourism in relation to places of worship”, Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, 1:(2):173-186.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15320/ICONARP.2017.24

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Iconarp International Journal of Architecture and Planning

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

                                                                                    
                                                                                     INDEXES & DATABASES:
                                                                                                      
 
                         
                      
                       
 
 

                                                
                            ICONARP International Journal of Architecture and Planning is an OAJ supported by Selcuk University, ©2019,