Examining the Role of Cultural Landscape in Regional Development: Defining Criteria and Looking at Ephesus

Gökçe Şimşek

Abstract


The link between regional development and cultural heritage has been at the center of theoretical discussions and practices in the field of preservation. Especially, varieties of practices and regional plans have been developed in different parts of the World such as Europe, Russia and South Africa in order to ensure regional development through cultural heritage. In this paper, it is accepted that a cultural landscape, as a sub-region of a particular region, is a relevant and meaningful unit that can contribute to the qualities of the region in terms of socio-cultural and economic aspects. In this context, the main goal of this paper is to develop a set of criteria that will act as a tool for identifying to which aspects of a cultural landscape has the potential to contribute regional development and to evaluate possible contributions of Ephesus and its cultural landscape to regional development. These criteria can be classified according to a framework implying a three-fold classification; improvements in the physical quality of the cultural landscape, economic dimension and socio-cultural dimension. As a result, this case indicates that cultural landscape has great potential to contribute to the social and economic development of a region. There is a great need to support community through tools such as awareness raising programmes, regional heritage planning, regional heritage institutions acting as regional agencies. 


Keywords


Cultural landscape; regional development; preservation; impacts of archaeology; Ephesus

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abankina, T. (2013). Regional development models using cultural heritage resources. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 7 (1), 3–10. Retrieved from.https://www.hse.ru/pubs/share/direct/document/98177196.

Aminy, A. (2002). Spatialities of globalization. Environment and Planning.A,.(34),.385/99..Retrieved.from.http://epn.sagepub.com/content/34/3/385.full.pdf+html.

Antrop, M. (2005). Why landscapes of the past are important for the future? Landscape and Urban Planning, 70. Retrieved from www.sciencedirect.com.

Austrian Archaeological Institute. (2014). Vienna: Austria.

Begg, I. (1999). Cities and competitiveness. Urban Studies, 36, 795–809. doi:10.1080/0042098993222.

Boschma, R. A. (2004). Competitiveness of regions from an evolutionary perspective. Regional Studies, 38(9), 1001-1014. doi:10.1080/0034340042000292601.

Bramwell, B. & Sharman, A. (1999). Collaboration in local tourism policymaking. Annals of Tourism Research, 26, 392-415. Retrieved from http://ac.els-cdn.com.

CE. (2000). European landscape convention. Retrieved from http://www.heritagecouncil.ie/ fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/Landscape/European_Landscape.pdf.

CE. (2015). Namur declaration, The ministers of the states parties to the European cultural convention meeting in Namur on 2324April2015.Retrievedfrom.https://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cultureheritage/heritage/6thConfCultural.Heritage/Namur-Declar_en.pdf.

Central Directorate of Revolving Funds. (2009). Muze ve örenyerleri girislerine iliskin sikca sorulan sorular. Retrieved February 18, 2014, from http://dosim.kulturturizm.gov.tr/TR,51927/muze-ve-orenyerleri-girislerine-iliskin-sikca-sorulan-s-.html.

Cernea, M. (2001). Cultural heritage and development: A framework for action in the Middle East and North Africa. Retrieved.from.http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/406981468278943948/pdf/225590REPLACEM1 ccession0A2003100110.pdf.

Coe, N.M., Hess, M., Yeung, H.W., Dicken, P. & Henderson, J. (2004). ‘Globalizing’ Regional Development: A Global Production Networks Perspective. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 29 (4), 468–484. doi: 10.1111/j.0020-2754.2004.00142.x.

Crouch, G. & Ritchie, J.B.R. (1995). Destination competitiveness and the role of the tourism enterprise. In Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Business Congress, Istanbul, Turkey (43–8).

Danson, M., Halkier, H. & Damborg, C. (1998). Regional development agencies in Europe: An Introduction and framework for analysis. In H. Halkier, M. Danson & C. Damborg (Eds.), Regional Development Agencies in Europe (13-25). London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Denise Cook Design. (2015). Regional heritage strategic plan for the regional district of Okanagan-Similkameen. Retrieved October.10,2015,.from.https://www.rdos.bc.ca/departments/development-services/planning/projects/ heritage-sites/regional-heritage-strategic-plan.

Dwyer, L. & Kim, C. (2003). Destination competitiveness: Determinants and indicators. Current Issues in Tourism, 6(5),369/414.Retrieved.from.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/13683500308667962.

Enright, M. J. & Newton, J. (2005). Determinants of tourism destination competitiveness in Asia Pacific: Comprehensiveness and universality. Journal of Travel Research, 43(4), 339-350.

Eraydın, A. (2008). Politikalardan süreç tasarımına: Yeni bölgesel politikalar ve yönetişim modelleri. In 2. Bölgesel kalkınma sempozyumu bildiri kitabı, Çok düzlemli yönetişim bildiri kitabı, Ege Üniversitesi, İzmir (pp.5-24).

Europe Nostra. (2006). The Malta declaration on cultural tourism: Its encouragement and control. Retrieved from http://www.europanostra.org/UPLOADS/FILS/Malta_declaration_Cultural_Tourism.pdf.

Gordon, I. R. (1999). Internationalisation and urban competition. Urban.Studies.36,.1001.16..doi:10.1080/0042098993321.

Greffe, X. (2004). Is heritage an asset or a liability? Journal of Cultural.Heritage,.5,.301.9.doi:10.1016/j.culher.2004.05.001.

Günlü, E., Yağcı, K. & Pirnar, İ. (2009). Preserving cultural heritage and possible impacts on regional development, Case of Izmir. International Journal of Emerging and Transition Economies, 2 (2) 213-229. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/270337742_Preserving_Cultural_Heritage_And_Possible_Impacts_On_Regional_Development_Case_Of_Izmir.

Hall, C. (1999). Rethinking collaboration and partnership: A public policy perspective. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 7 (3&4), 274-289. doi:10.1080/09669589908667340.

Halkier, H. (2006). Regional development agencies and multilevel governance: European perspectives. In Bölgesel Kalkınma ve Yönetişim Sempozyumu Bildiri Kitapçığı, (pp.3-17). Retrieved.from.http://www.tepav.org.tr/upload/files/1321362529/2.Bolgesel_Kalkinma_ve_Yonetisim_Sempozyumu_Bildiri_Kitabi.pdf.

ICOMOS. (1999). Cultural tourism charter. Retrieved from http:// www.icomos.org.

ICOMOS. (2011). The Paris declaration on heritage as a driver of development, adopted at Paris, UNESCO headquarters, on Thursday 1st December 2011. A Retrieved from http://www.icomos.org/Paris2011/GA2011_ Declaration_de_Paris_EN_20120109.pdf.

Izmir Development Agency. (2012). 2012 Yılı doğrudan faaliyet desteği. Retrieved from http://www.izka.org.tr/ destekler/onceki-donem-mali-destek-programlari/2012-dogrudan-faaliyet-destegi.

Jiven, G. & Larkham, P.J. (2003). Sense of Place, Authenticity and Character: A Commentary. Journal of Urban Design, 8 (1) 67–81.

Kozak, M. & Rimmington, M. (1999). Measuring tourist destination competitiveness: Conceptual considerations and empirical findings. Hospitality Management, 18 (3), 273-383..Retrieved.from.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article/pii/ S0278431999000341.

Lovering, J. (1999). Theory led by policy: The inadequacies of the “New Regionalism” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 23, 379-395. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1468-2427.00202/epdf.

Jokilehto, J. (1999) A History of Architectural Conservation. Oxford: Butterworth.

Mackinnon, D., Cumbers, A. & Chapman, K. (2002). Learning, innovation and regional development: A critical appraisal of recent debates. Progress in Human Geography, 26, 293-311..Retrieved.from.http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.89.3449&rep=rep1&type=pdf.

McCarthy, J. (1994). Are sweet dreams made of this? Tourism in Bali and Eastern Indonesia. Northcote, Vic.: IRIP.

McKercher, B., Hoa, P. & Du Cros, H. (2005). Relationship between tourism and cultural heritage management: Evidence from Hong Kong. Tourism Management, 26, (539-548). Retrieved from www.sciencedirect.com.

Menteş, G. (2006). Kültürel mirasın korunması ve turizmin geliştirilmesi için bir yönetişim modeli, Güneydoğu Anadolu örneği. Bölgesel Kalkınma ve Yönetişim Sempozyumu Bildiri Kitapçığı, (pp.319-337). Retrieved from.http://www.tepav.org.tr/upload/files/13213625292.Bolgesel_Kalkinma_ve_Yonetisim_Sempozyumu_Bildiri_ Kitabi.pdf.

OECD. (2005). Culture and local development. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/leed-forum/publications/ Culture %20and%20Local%20Development.pdf.

O’Keefe, T. (2007). Landscape and memory: Historiography, theory and methodology. In N. Moore & Y.Whelan (Eds.), Heritage, Memory and the Politics of Identity, New perspectives of the Cultural Landscape (pp. 3-18). Retrieved from Ashgate e-Book.

Öztürk, F. Personal communication, April 4, 2014.

Pezzini, M. (2003). Cultivating Regional Development: Main Trends and Policy Challenges in OECD Regions. Retrieved from http://www.alternativasycapacidades.org/sites/default/files/biblioteca_file/Pezzini%20Mario.%20Cultivating%20regional%20development.pdf.

Pulhan, G. (2009). Cultural heritage reconsidered in the light of recent cultural policies. In S. Ada & H.A. Ince (Eds.), Introduction to cultural policy in Turkey (pp. 137–158). Istanbul: Istanbul Bilgi University Press.

Regulations Concerning the Principles and Essentials Relating To The Determining of Management Areas Within The Foundation and Responsibilities of the Monumental Masterpieces Council, RGT 27.11.2005. 26006.

Richards, G. (2005). Cultural tourism in Europe. Retrieved from http://www.tram-research.com/cultural_tourism_in_europe.PDF.

Rypkema, D. (1999) Culture, historic preservation and economic development in the 21st century. Paper presented at Leadership Conference on Conservancy and Development. Retrieved.from.http://www.columbia.edu/cu/china/DRPAP.html.

Şimşek, G. (2015). Arkeolojik varlıklarla ilgili yasal düzenlemeler. Aydın: Emre Dijital Ofset Matbaacılık.

Şimşek, G. (2009). Interventions on immovable archaeological heritage as a tool for new formation process. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Middle East Technical University.

State Planning Organization. (2004). İlçelerin Sosyo-Ekonomik Gelişmişlik Sıralaması Araştırması. Retrieved from http://kirklareli.gov.tr/90planlama/90diger/dokuman/dpt_ilcelerin_sosyo_ekonomik_gelismislik_siralamasi_ arastirmasi_2004.pdf.

Throsby, D. (2012). Investment in urban heritage, economic impacts of cultural heritage projects in FYR Macedonia and Georgia..Available.from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTURBANDEVELOPMENT/.Resources/336387.1169585750379/UDS16_Investment+in+Urban+Heritage.pdf.

Throsby, D. (1999). Cultural capital. Journal of Cultural Economics, 23,.3/12..Retrieved.from.http://culturalheritage.ceistorvergata.it/virtual_library/Art.%20.%20Cultural%20Capital_D.%20THROSBY.pdf.

UNESCO. (1992). Guidelines on the inscription of specific types of properties on The World Heritage List. Retrieved from http://whc.unesco.org/archive/opguide05-annex3-en.pdf.

UNESCO. (2012). Operational guidelines for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention. Retrieved from http://whc.unesco.org/archive/opguide12-en.pdf.

UNESCO. (2014). Diyarbakır Fortress and Hevsel Gardens, Cultural Landscapes..Retrieved.from.http://whc.unesco.org/uploads/nominations/1488.pdf

Urry, J. (1990). The tourist gaze London: SAGE publications.

Vos, W. & Meeks, H. (1999). Trends in European cultural landscape development: Perspective for a sustainable development. Landscape and Planning, 46. Retrieved from www.sciencedirect.com.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15320/ICONARP.2017.17

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Iconarp International Journal of Architecture and Planning

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

                                                                                    
                                                                                     INDEXES & DATABASES:
                                                                                                      
 
              
               
                
 
                   
 

                                                
                            ICONARP International Journal of Architecture and Planning is an OAJ supported by Selcuk University, ©2017,